The benthic density was 1 to 4 ind./m2 and the species varied from 0 to 3 at sampling stations A1, A2, A3, and A5 before mangrove removal. The report indicates that the effects of climate change could result in a loss of a further 10 - 15 per cent of mangroves by year 2100. The first study focused on the effects of incineration of mangrove detritus (Riddell, 2005), the second looked at impacts of mangrove removal on vegetation (Wildland Consultants, 2005), and the third assessed the effects of vegetation removal on benthic fauna. Siangshan Wetland, located in Hsinchu, Taiwan, is an important muddy wetland with abundant species and biodiversity. In this study, the rehabilitation effort of mangrove removal was applied to improve the habitat for benthic organisms. The process of mechanical removal is divided into five steps: trenching, shoveling, digging, compacting, and healing. 3). The non-mangrove region had more number of individuals, number of species, and indicators than did the mangrove region. The non-mangrove region had significantly higher benthic biomass than did the mangrove areas (t = 2.45, p = 0.003). The sediment environment changed almost immediately from muddy to sandy after mangrove removal; other changes included a subsequent overall increase in the number of snails, crabs, and bivalves. After mangrove removal, the values for individuals, number of species, and indicators of benthic organisms increased significantly. Compared with prior studies, similar species were found in the non-mangrove region in this study, such as Uca arcuata, Uca vocans borealis, Uca formosensis, Uca lactea, and Helice formosensis, whose habitats were mainly mudflats and frequently immersed in sea water. The spatial variations of species composition are shown in Fig. The other dense region appeared in the south near Haishan Fishing Port in 2008. The biological investigation of benthic communities at Siangshan Wetland in 2002 and 2005 showed that the dominant species were Macrophthalmus banzai, Laternula anatine, and Mictyris brevidactylus (Wilderness Conservation Association, 2007). This provides the small juvenile fishes benign physical environment to settle. 2002) and are described as highly mangrove-dependent. Purpose: In September 2005, unauthorised clearance of mangroves took place in the The unrestricted spreading of mangroves leads to the reduction and destruction of other habitats and have attracted the attention of many community groups and environmental managers, who considered mangrove expansions to have adverse influences on ecology and socioeconomics (Schwarz, 2003). After mangrove removal, species returned to their original habitats and noteworthy biological values significantly increased in the mangrove regions. Based on projected rates, mangrove trees could lose their race against rising water within the next 30 years. Macroalgae cover is one of the clearest indicators of poor coral reef health (Steneck and Sala, 2005). In this project, the mangrove forest was divided into two dense regions and a scattered region; a mechanical removal method was applied in the dense regions and manual removal in the scattered region. The variations in the Shannon–Wiener index (H′) and Pielou’s evenness index (J) are illustrated in Fig. With global losses already in excess of 50%, mangroves are being lost more rapidly than tropical rainforests. In the 1980s, mangrove planting projects for coastal protection resulted in the unexpected spread of mangroves. The non-mangrove region exhibited more variations than the mangrove region. 2007, Nakahara 2007) and show similar results to studies on the island of Hawai‘i; mangroves seem to be be providing habitat for invasive fish species (e.g., poeciliids, snapper, tilapia) (Van der Veur 2006, MacKenzie et al. Mangrove and seagrass ecosystems are widespread coastal and estuarine environments found in tropical and subtropical latitudes. Similar results were reported for Matapouri Estuary, in the north of New Zealand, where benthic abundance and biodiversity in mangrove habitats had been significantly below those of adjacent seagrass habitats (Alfaro, 2006). WMD: mangrove habitat (undisturbed) After mangrove removal five kinds of crabs were observed, including Uca arcuata, Uca vocans borealis, Uca formosensis, Uca lactea, and Helice formosensis. After mangrove removal, the benthic density increased to 25 to 130 ind./m2, and the number of species increased to between 10 and 19. Effects of mangrove removal on benthic organisms in the Siangshan Wetland in Hsinchu, Taiwan Introduction. These updates will appear in your home dashboard each time you visit PeerJ. thank you in advance for your patience and understanding. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are appropriate for vegetation studies (Ren et al., 2008; Son et al., 2013), and demonstrate a good range and sensitivity for monitoring and assessing spatial and temporal variations in vegetation amount and condition (Son et al., 2013). In coastal areas, mangroves provide numerous benefits, such as protecting communities along the coastal against natural disasters and hazards, for example, cyclones, tsunamis, and shoreline erosion (Saenger, 2002; FAO, 2007). The study provide ecological records that serve as a reference for future mangrove deforestations in other areas and is an important case study in coastal management. mud present at both sites. The results from this study provide some insight into the physical characteristics of the mangrove habitat at Moanaanuanu Estuary, and the intertidal areas that were cleared of mangroves. Given their feeding habits, they are crucial for preserving wetland environments: they aerate the substrate and prevent anaerobic stagnation by sifting through the sands (Levinton, Judge & Kurdziel, 1995). Mangrove forests are among the world's most vulnerable subtropical and tropical habitats. - LaserSizer grain size analysis Special wetlands along Taiwan’s coasts contain extremely rich biological and landscape resources. We Vascular plants have a strong influence on coastal community structure, function, and successional patterns (Bertness, 1991, 1992; Snelgrove et al., 2000; Bortolus et al., 2002; Levin and Talley, 2002). A reduction of mangrove trees can even increase damage caused by natural disasters (Sandilyan and Kathiresan, 2012). Author(s) : Alfaro, A. C. 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